anaphora

Figure Name anaphora
Source Ad Herennium 4.12.19 ("repetitio"); Quintilian 7.4.8 ("relatio"); Isidore 1.36.8-9 ("anaphora," "epanaphora"); Aquila 34 ("epanaphora"); Sherry (1550) 47 ("epanaphora," "repeticio," "repeticion"); Peacham (1577) H4v ("anaphora", "epanaphora"); Suarez ("repetitio" "anaphora" "epibole") 58v-69r; Fraunce (1588) 1.19; Putt. (1589) 208 ("anaphora," "the figure of report"); Day 1599 84 ("anaphora," "repetitio"); Hoskins (1599)13.; Silva Rhetoricae (http://humanities.byu.edu/rhetoric/Silva.htm); JG Smith (1665) ("anaphora"); Garrett Epp (1994) ("repetitio," "anaphora," "epanaphora"); Macbeth (1876) ("anaphora," "epanaphora"); Holmes (1806) ("anaphora"); De Mille (1882) ("repetitio crebra," "anaphora"); Blount (1653) 7; Bullinger (1898) ("anaphora; or, like sentence-beginnings"); Norwood (1742) ("anaphora"); Vickers (1989) ("anaphora")
Earliest Source None
Synonyms epanaphora, epembasis, epibole, adjectio, relatio, repetitio, repeticio, repeticion, the figure of report, repetitio crebra, like sentence-beginnings
Etymology From Gk. ana “again” and phero “to bring or carry”
Type Scheme
Linguistic Domain Lexicographic
Phonological
Definition

1. Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses, sentences, or lines. (Silva Rhetoricae)

2. Rehearsal: a figure when several clauses of a sentence are begun with the same word or sound.; Anaphora, Relatio, Relation, or a bringing of the same again, derived from [anaphero] refero, to bring again or rehearse.It is the repetition of a word of importance and effectual signification; or, It is a figure when several clauses of a sentence are begun with the same word or sound.(JG Smith)

3. Repetition of a word at the beginning of successive clauses (or poetic lines). (Garrett Epp)

4. Anaphora, Epanaphora, is the repeating of a word at the beginning of a successive clauses, as in an exquisite passage in S., "Merchant of Venice," act v., scene i., lines 1-22; or as St. Paul:
"Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the disputer of this world?" (Macbeth)

5. Anaphora gives more sentences one head; As readily appears to those that read. (Holmes)

6 a) 175. REPETITIO CREBRA.
3. Sometimes the word is repeated frequently; and this is called "repetitio crebra:"
"The double, double, double beat
Of the thundering drum." -DRYDEN. (De Mille)

6 b) 176. ANAPHORA.
4. Anaphora is the repetition of a word at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences. (De Mille)

7. "when many clauses have the like beginning;" (Blount)

8. This figure is so-called because it is the repeating of the same word at the beginning of successive clauses: thus adding weight and emphasis to statments and arguments by calling special attention to them. (Bullinger, 210)

9. ANAPHORA. Anaphora, from the Greek (anaphero,) to bring back again: it is a repetition of a word in the beginning. of several sentences. (Norwood, 68)

10. Anaphora (or repetitio), where the same word is repeated at the beginning of a sequence of clauses or sentences. (Vickers 492)

Example

1. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise,
This fortress built by Nature for herself
Against infection and the hand of war,
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as [a] moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands;
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England,
This nurse, this teeming womb of royal kings [. . .]
This land of such dear souls, this dear dear land,
Dear for her reputation through the world,
Is now leas'd out — I die pronouncing it —
Like to a tenement or pelting farm.

—John of Gaunt in Shakespeare's Richard II (2.1.40-51; 57-60) (Silva Rhetoricae)

3. Allas, the deeth, allas, myn Emelye,
Allas, departynge of oure compaignye;
Allas, myn hertes queene, allas, my wyf,
Myn hertes lady, endere of my lyf! (KnT 2773-76 qtd. in Garrett Epp)

2. You whom vertue hath made the Princess of felicity, be not the Minister of ruine; you whom my choyce hath made the Load-star of all my sublunary comfort, be not the rock of my shipwrack. (JG Smith)

4. Or accept of a model sentence from the glowing Irish orator, Curran:
"The heart of an Irishman is by nature bold, and he confides; it is tender, and he loves; it is generous, and he gives; it is social, and he is hospitable." (Macbeth)

5. Peace crowns our Life; Peace does our Plenty breed. (Holmes)

6 a) "He sang Darius, good and great,
Fallen, fallen, fallen, fallen,
Fallen from his high estate." -DRYDEN. (De Mille)

6 b) "Truth-teller was our English Alfred named,
Truth-teller was our English Duke." -TENNYSON (De Mille)

7. "you whom vertue hath made the Princess of Felicity, be not the minister of ruine. You whom my choyce hath made the Goddess of my safety. You whom Nature hath made the Load-starr of comfort, be not the rock of shipwreck." (Blount)

8. "Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and/blessed shalt thou be in the field:/blessed shall be the fruit of the body,/and the fruit of thy ground,/and the fruit of thy cattle,/the increase of thy kine,
/and the flocks of thy sheep,/blessed shall be thy basket and thy store,/blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in,/blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out." -Deut. 28:3-6

9. The voice of the Lord is powerful, the voice of the Lord is full of majesty, Psal. 29. 4. Praise the Lord from the heavens, praise him in the height, praise him all his angels, praise him Sun and Moon: where the royal Psalmist affectionately calls upon the whole order of created beings, to sing praises to their Maker. Charity suffereth long, and is kind, charity, envieth not, charity vaunteth not herself: where the abstract is made use of for the concrete, the charitable person, Psal. 118. ver. 8, 9. (Norwood, 68-69)

10. Some glory in their birth, some in their skill,Some in their wealth, some in their body's force.... --Shakespeare, "Sonnet 91" (Vickers 492)

Kind Of Repetition
Part Of
Related Figures epistrophe, symploce, Figures of repetition, epanaphora
Notes Linguistic domain is tough here. It's definitely phonological, because anaphora is common in speeches and the example is from a play (audible discourse). But what about Morphological. I keep coming back to this: when words/concepts are repeated, are they Morphological? My problem is that morphological relates to morphemes--the components of words. So if word suffixes are being repeated, it's morphological; but is it morphological when entire words are being repeated? Maybe morphological is an inherently tricky Linguistic Domain because it actually isn't a Linguistic Domain?
Confidence Unconfident
Last Editor Daniel Etigson
Confidence Unconfident
Editorial Notes I rm morphological (it isn't a LD?) and added Lexicographic. -ark
Reviewed No